Excerpt from Research Paper: Toxic Contaminations from Transportation One of the most dangerous perils of global transportation that remain unknown to many is toxic contaminations from the various modes of transportation. Rail, sea, road, air and pipeline transportation are wellsprings that discharge toxic contaminations as gases and particulate issues producing harm to nature and human wellbeing.
For A and B, the maximum leakage is the sum of losses from the well through the distribution system plus losses from the CNG vehicle itself well-to-wheels ; for C, the maximum leakage is from the well through the transmission system where most power plants receive their fuel.
When leak rates are less than the y-intercept, a fuel switch scenario would result in net climate benefits beginning immediately. The three curves within each frame follow the conventions outlined in Fig.
We emphasize that our calculations assume an average leakage rate for the entire U. Much work needs to be done to determine actual emissions with certainty and to accurately characterize the site-to-site variability in emissions.
However, given limited current evidence, it is likely that leakage at individual natural gas well sites is high enough, when combined with leakage from downstream operations, to make the total leakage exceed the 3.
Recently, Wigley concluded that coal-to-gas switching on a global scale would result in increased warming on a global scale in the short term, based on examining a set of Transportation research paper with a climate model that included both the increased warming produced by CH4 losses from the natural gas fuel cycle and the additional cooling that occurs due to SO2 emissions and the sulfate aerosols they form as a result of burning coal 5.
This means that by the projected sulfur emissions from the U. Accounting for the lower SO2 Transportation research paper U. Increasingly, this will also be the case globally.
The production of sulfur aerosols as a result of coal combustion causes such negative impacts on human and ecosystem health that it is prudent to assume that policies will continue to be rapidly implemented in many, if not most, countries to reduce such emissions at a much faster pace than assumed by Wigley.
Little work appears to have been done to evaluate fuel-switching in on-road transportation with methods that consider the implications of all climate forcing emissions, including sulfur aerosols and black carbon, although the effect of short-lived climate forcers on individual transport sectors has been studied 16 One study reports that the influence of negative radiative forcing due to emissions from on-road transport is much lower than for the power generation sector in both the United States and globally This implies that our approach, which considers CO2 and CH4 emissions alone, provides a reasonable first-order estimate of changes in radiative forcing from fuel-switching scenarios for the on-road transport sector.
GWPs are a valuable tool to compare the radiative forcing of different gases but are not sufficient when thinking about fuel-switching scenarios.
TWPs provide a transparent, policy-relevant analytical approach to examine the time-dependent climate influence of different fuel-technology choices. Improved Science and Data Are Needed.
Ensuring a high degree of confidence in the climate benefits of natural gas fuel-switching pathways will require better data than are available today. Specific challenges include confirming the primary sources of emissions and determining drivers of variance in leakage rates.
Greater direct involvement of the scientific community could help improve estimates of CH4 leakage and identify approaches that enable independent validation of industry-reported emissions.
While CH4 leakage from natural gas infrastructure and use remains uncertain, it appears that current leakage rates are higher than previously thought. Because CH4 initially has a much higher effect on radiative forcing than CO2, maintaining low rates of CH4 leakage is critical to maximizing the climate benefits of natural gas fuel-technology pathways.
Significant progress appears possible given the economic benefits of capturing and selling lost natural gas and the availability of proven technologies.
Methods Our approach of using TWPs to compare the cumulative radiative forcing of fuel-technology combinations is a straightforward extension of the calculation of GWP, which is given by Eq.
Plotting the entire curve enables one to see the GWP values for all time horizons. Considering streams of emissions is more reflective of real-world scenarios that involve activities that occur over multiyear time frames.
We label as Technology-1 the alternative that combusts natural gas and has CO2 emissions E1,CO2 and CH4 emissions from the production, processing, storage, delivery, and use of the fuel: If LREF is the percent of gross natural gas produced that is currently emitted to the atmosphere over the relevant fuel cycle e.
This assumption deserves much further scrutiny.Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board > List of Issues Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Boardbenjaminpohle.com · transportation, fueled by the transition from the higher-cost UberBLACK product to the lower- discussed in this paper, but they are far too energy inefficient to be economically viable for large-scale operations.
Helicopters are designed for highly flexible operations requiring vertical flight. benjaminpohle.com A recent research by Nil Kula Degirmenci and Gul Denktas Sakar recognized number of security-linked challenges the intermodal transportation sector has been dealing with for the past several years (Degirmenci and Sakar, ).benjaminpohle.com /intermodal-transportation.
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