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The Role of the Media During the Cold War Alexander StaffordOct 26views This content was written by a student and assessed as part of a university degree. It will evidence how the media on both sides of the ideological division sort to produce, contribute and maintain political and cultural antagonism.
The essay will also evidence how the main method of this was the development and distribution of political propaganda, both domestically and internationally. To begin, there will be a brief exploration of the historical context of the media followed by a detailed presentation of its actions.
During this time, the media predominantly consisted of, print, film, radio, and Propaganda cold war essay. This was prior to the popularity of decentralised media institutions such as electronic social media.
This is worthy of note because as broadcasting requires large amounts of funding; centralised media is extremely susceptible to state control Bernhard, The Cold War is accepted to have lasted from to When American aspirations for European capitalism seemed threatened; media in both blocs jumped into action.
While the actions of the state-owned Soviet media would not be expected to take a watchdog approach, what may have been surprising was the extent to which the western media took a mouthpiece position Carruthers, The allegiance that the majority of the media took to government policy and the politicisation of its content began almost immediately with the start of the Cold War.
This is evident with the early Cold War television reports often being scripted and sometimes produced by the defence establishment Bernhard, This development of the media accepting governmental influence was essential to the production of public support for state actions.
The initial role the media took was to motivate the post-WW2 populace into reaffirming and defending their national political and economic allegiances. While the private-owned Western media was obliging in the defence of Western economic and military interests, the state-censored soviet media was just as ready to defend theirs.
At the start of the conflict, media coverage of the Cold War between America, its allies and the Soviet Union served to escalate domestic fear of imminent destruction.
The use of print with easily de-codable and emotive images helped to redefine national identity as a virtuous and patriotic America, against a dangerous and destructive socialist east. It worked to subdue any domestic sympathy for the enemy or resistance to the conflict that usually occurs during war.
It was a calculated action to maintain public antagonism towards the enemy and rejection of their political and economic policies. The media extended the propaganda to every aspect of western life, from radio, film, television and print to even schools. This act of media manipulation to create mass fear and paranoia cannot be undervalued, it was the conscious effort of the powerful to marginalise unpopular opinion and spread the dominate agenda.
It also assisted in the solidification and polarisation of cultural differences and reinforced political ideology Mikkonen, Media pollicisation and propaganda techniques were also used as a direct tool against the enemy.
|Who can edit:||One of the ways countries, like the United States, curb this is by creating propaganda. In World War II, the United States ramped up the propaganda to get the public behind the war effort and to unite the country.|
|PROPAGANDA IN THE COLD WAR | Nes Ev - benjaminpohle.com||Part Two Karl F.|
There was a direct contribution of the media to the war effort which saw the media engaging in antagonistic psychological warfare. This was achieved by dissembling propaganda into the Soviet Union via the radio, as an attempt to spread pro-capitalist sentiment into the soviet population and create a more pro-Western culture.
The Soviet media also used the medium of radio within its own states and other countries as a form of transnational propaganda.
Because the Soviet media was state-censored; it sought to legitimise its appearance by camouflaging its production origins. These actions of the media show the progression from a seemingly more passive producer of public support and political compliance, to an active tool of the war itself Chisem, The media on both sides of the divide were responsible for the production of public opinion, the contribution of propaganda, and maintenance of antagonism via psychological warfare.
While maintaining political loyalty to their nation states, there governmental brief was to project the positive aspects of their nations into the Soviet Union. This was a form of gentle, yet cohesive, diplomacy Chisem, It sought to counteract Soviet propaganda by subversively offering a positive view of the perceived enemy.
While doing this, the Western media soon realised the relevance of the fact that the Soviet Union was not a homogeneous society. The colonial empire consisted of many nationalities, such as Ukrainians and those from the Baltic States. By tailoring radio announcements to individual minorities, the West was able to construct a long-term strategy of disrupting territorial integrity.Christopher Mayhew's A War of Words: A Cold War Witness and Paul Lashmar and James Oliver's Britain's Secret Propaganda War also look at Britain and take us forward into the post Cold War.
The books should be read as a pair. Yet, in many cases, war itself is not inevitable, and propaganda is often employed to go closer to war, if that is the preferred foreign policy option. Indeed, once war starts, civilian casualties are unfortunately almost a guaranteed certainty.
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