This work focused upon the play of school age children through the United Kingdom with an emphasis upon England, Scotland, and Wales.
Culture and Development in Children's Play [From: Making sense of developmentally and culturally appropriate practice DCAP in early childhood education. All rights reserved] Children's play has been recognized as the major agent in young children's development and learning.
Play also serves as an enculturative mechanism Schwartzman, Through play children learn societal roles, norms, and values. As a fundamental concept for developmentally and culturally appropriate practice, we need to understand the dynamics of cultural influence and child development on children's play, particularly in the contexts of family ethnic culture.
In this chapter I discuss the inseparable and culturally grounded relation between children's development and their play. Culture Shapes Sense Making of the Phenomena The eyes of looking at and interpreting children's play is different from culture to culture.
Individuals with a strong influence from Euro-American cultural heritages look at, interpret, explore social phenomena on an individual basis. Especially when a person is raised by a Euro-American nuclear family, individualism is more apparent than when a person is raised by an extended or multigenerational family.
The Euro-American ethnic perspective usually perceives that a family is composed of a few individuals. This individually oriented cultural mind-set shapes the researchers', practitioners', and parents' approach, understanding, and description of child's play phenomena within that paradigm. It also leads them to see interaction with the child based on that culturally shaped mode.
For example, they are looking at whether the child can be in control of the play object, whether the individual child realizes that there are other individual swhether he or she is able to interact with them, how much same-age peer interaction occurs; or whether the individual child is able to negotiate with other individual s in a group play Howes, ; Parten, Psychologist Mildred Parten recorded the changing nature--"development"--of young children's play from age two to age five.
Parten's categories of children's social play have been frequently used since then. We still view her categories of child's play as a meaningful framework within which to examine the increasing social maturity of the child Hughes, Her theory was based on the following developmental stages: It is the lowest level of social play.
The child plays alone and independently even if surrounded by other children. It is mentioned as typical of two-year-olds play; 2 Parallel play. The child plays independently at the same activity, at the same time, and in the same place. The child is aware of the presence of peers but each child plays separately; 3 Associate play.
It is described as a common among three- and especially four-year-olds' play. The child is still focused on a separate activity but there is a considerable amount of sharing, lending, taking turns, and attending to the activities of one's peers; and 4 Cooperative play.
It is described as a high level of play that represents the child's social and cognitive maturity. Influenced by Parten's theory, Howes and Howes, Unger, and Seidner present a similar developmental theory of child's social play: Children engage in similar activities but do not pay any attention to one another; 2 Mutual regard.
The child has an awareness of others but shows no verbalization or other social behaviors. The child only engages in a social act in similar or identical activities by making eye contact; 3 Simple social exchange.
The child engages in similar activities along with other social behaviors such as talking, smiling, offering toys to peers; 4 Complementary play. The child begins to show a differentiation of complementary roles. Following Parten's, Howes' and others' work, practitioners, educators, and parents who are from families with a strong influence of Euro-American culture tend to stress the cognitive benefits of child's play or the acquisition of individual independent social skills through play.
Families with a strong African-American, Asian-American, or Hispanic-American background tend to be somewhat more group-oriented in their understanding of social phenomena compared to families from Euro-American cultures.
There is a high tendency to have extended or multigenerational family structures.influences and less likely to report state departments of education and school boards as strong influences than were their counterparts in larger schools (table 1). Jun 10, · The connection between play and culture has an illustrious past.
In , the classic play theorist Johan Huizinga articulated the position of play as . their previous and current life-role activities. They can discuss the values they seek to community, school, and social policies) influence when and how people play particular life roles. Individuals can discuss how these determinants influence their current and, potentially, their future life-role participation.
Clearly, crys-. Play activities are essential to healthy development for children and adolescents. Research shows that 75% of brain development occurs after birth.
The activities engaged in by children both stimulate and influence the pattern of the connections made between the nerve cells.
This process influences. Unit 7:E3 Information about current influences on planning and Provision of learning opportunities. 1. She is a great believer in “play with a purpose”. Settings should concentrate on the children’s interest and stage of development.
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