Chapter 6Clinical Reasoning, Decisionmaking, and Action:
When examining the vast literature on critical thinking, various definitions of critical thinking emerge. Here are some samples: To recognize its strengths and weaknesses and, as a result, 2. To recast the thinking in improved form" Center for Critical Thinking, c.
Perhaps the simplest definition is offered by Beyer Basically, Beyer sees critical thinking as using criteria to judge the quality of something, from cooking to a conclusion of a research paper.
In essence, critical thinking is a disciplined manner of thought that a person uses to assess the validity of something statements, news stories, arguments, research, etc.
Characteristics of Critical Thinking Wade identifies eight characteristics of critical thinking. Critical thinking involves asking questions, defining a problem, examining evidence, analyzing assumptions and biases, avoiding emotional reasoning, avoiding oversimplification, considering other interpretations, and tolerating ambiguity.
Another characteristic of critical thinking identified by many sources is metacognition. Metacognition is thinking about one's own thinking. In the book, Critical Thinking, Beyer elaborately explains what he sees as essential aspects of critical thinking.
Critical thinkers are skeptical, open-minded, value fair-mindedness, respect evidence and reasoning, respect clarity and precision, look at different points of view, and will change positions when reason leads them to do so. To think critically, must apply criteria.
Need to have conditions that must be met for something to be judged as believable. Although the argument can be made that each subject area has different criteria, some standards apply to all subjects.
Is a statement or proposition with supporting evidence. Critical thinking involves identifying, evaluating, and constructing arguments. The ability to infer a conclusion from one or multiple premises. To do so requires examining logical relationships among statements or data. The way one views the world, which shapes one's construction of meaning.
In a search for understanding, critical thinkers view phenomena from many different points of view. Procedures for Applying Criteria: Other types of thinking use a general procedure. Critical thinking makes use of many procedures.
These procedures include asking questions, making judgments, and identifying assumptions. Why Teach Critical Thinking?
Through technology, the amount of information available today is massive. This information explosion is likely to continue in the future. Students need a guide to weed through the information and not just passively accept it. As mentioned in the section, Characteristics of Critical Thinkingcritical thinking involves questioning.
It is important to teach students how to ask good questions, to think critically, in order to continue the advancement of the very fields we are teaching. Beyer sees the teaching of critical thinking as important to the very state of our nation. He argues that to live successfully in a democracy, people must be able to think critically in order to make sound decisions about personal and civic affairs.
If students learn to think critically, then they can use good thinking as the guide by which they live their lives. Teaching Strategies to Help Promote Critical Thinking TheVolume 22, issue 1, of the journal, Teaching of Psychologyis devoted to the teaching critical thinking.
Most of the strategies included in this section come from the various articles that compose this issue.
Angelo stresses the use of ongoing classroom assessment as a way to monitor and facilitate students' critical thinking. An example of a CAT is to ask students to write a "Minute Paper" responding to questions such as "What was the most important thing you learned in today's class?
What question related to this session remains uppermost in your mind? Cooper argues that putting students in group learning situations is the best way to foster critical thinking.
McDade describes this method as the teacher presenting a case or story to the class without a conclusion. Problem solving is another crucial critical thinking skill that involves analyzing a problem, generating and implementing a solution, and assessing the success of the plan.
After all, employers don’t simply want employees who can think about information critically. Problem Solving Problem solving is another crucial critical thinking skill that involves analyzing a problem, generating and implementing a solution, and assessing the success of the plan.
After all, employers don’t simply want employees who can think about information critically. Teaching critical thinking skills can be supported by an understanding of Information Fluency. Mastering the proper use of information is crucial to our students’ success in school and life.
It’s about learning how to dig through knowledge in order to find the most useful and appropriate facts for solving a problem. "Most formal definitions characterize critical thinking as the intentional application of rational, higher order thinking skills, such as analysis, synthesis, problem recognition and problem solving, inference, and evaluation" (Angelo, , p.
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Goal 2: Critical Thinking Goal: To develop thinkers who are able to unify factual, creative, rational, and value-sensitive modes of thought. Critical thinking will be taught and used throughout the general education curriculum in order to develop students' awareness of .